South Sudan came to being as an independent country on July 9, 2011 after a long war of liberation with its present northern neighbor Sudan. It has, according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the worse Millennium Development Goal (MDG) indicators relative to sub-Saharan African averages and by extension South Sudan is one of the most undeveloped countries on earth. The new nation is endowed with natural resources, such as agricultural land, water, animal wealth, minerals, oil and so forth. This endowment notwithstanding, the country faces enormous challenges in terms of: 1) security; 2) governance constrained by weak institutions and capacities; 3) landlocked; 4) high expectations for quick dividends of secession; and 5) poor physical infrastructure with less than 250 km of paved roads! The above stated challenges do also constitute opportunities if they are addressed within a dynamic framework of sustained peace, economic growth, and poverty eradication. It is in this context that the Center is established as an independent, nonprofit and non-partisan institution in support of South Sudan’s quest for good governance through applied research and evidence-based policy advice.