Work is essential to emotional thriving and stable communities. Engagement in work is essential to the full realization of being human. Unwilling idleness not only brings material suffering. Idleness gives rise to feelings of alienation from the on-going life of the community. Alienation is a psychological condition of estrangement between the individual and the world in which that individual must survive and flourish. A more serious aspect of unwanted idleness is that it can lead to civil conflict as young males confront a life without economic security and the hope of family formation. A reliable predictor of social unrest is the unemployment rate among males aged 16-30. What are the institutional impediments for meaningful employment in South Sudan? Why has job creation failed to materialize?